Q1. What is network handle?
Solution: We can look at network and host addresses in two approaches:
one) Community-ID and Host-ID
An IP deal with is made of two parts, the remaining component is network ID, the proper part is host ID.
For instance, in one hundred.3.4.five, if 100 is a network ID, then 3.four.5 is a host ID. If a hundred.3 is network ID, then 4.five is a host ID.
2) Network-tackle and host-tackle. Let’s seem at two illustrations:
IP-tackle Network-ID Host-ID Network-deal with Host-handle Mask
a hundred.four.five.six/8 100 4.five.six 100… 100.4.5.six /eight
a hundred and fifty.1.two.three/16 a hundred and fifty.one two.three 150.one.. 126.96.36.199 /sixteen
Notice: Network mask is offered as /m the place m is a two-digit decimal quantity among 8~31.
Note: IP, community, and host addresses are normally introduced with masks.
Q2. What is mask?
Solution. IP makes use of community mask to split up a 32-bit IP-deal with into network-ID and host-ID. Community-tackle is manufactured of community-ID bits on the still left and bits on the proper.
For instance, for 150.one.two.3/16, sixteen is the network mask, one hundred fifty.1 is community-ID, a hundred and fifty.one../16 is network-address, 2.three is host-ID, a hundred and fifty.1.two.three/16 is host-deal with. Community-handle is employed by routers to forward packets. Host deal with is employed to distinguish hosts in the identical community.
Q3. Why community addresses?
Response: When quantities are as well numerous, we use hierarchical framework to deal with them. For illustration, telephone variety are structured as.
For example, 086.021.1234.5678 is a quantity in China, Shanghais. The voice information is switched by region code, city code, and prefix. Structured telephone numbers are a lot simpler to switch than flat ten-digit phone quantities.
World wide web faces a related scenario. There are nearly buy ipv4 (IP has 32 bits. or 2^32 person addresses.) Routers use routing tables to foreword packets. Clearly, it’s much less complicated for router to manage structured addresses than 4 billion flat ones.
IP’s solution is to use network-addresses to forward packets, not specific types. Community mask breaks an handle into a community-ID and a host-ID. Routing tables use community addresses, not IP addresses.
– one hundred…/8 community has 16,777,216 addresses. In a routing desk, (one hundred…/8, following hop interface) says: ahead packets with the exact same spot network to the very same subsequent hop interface.
– one hundred fifty.one../16 community has sixty five,536 addresses. In a routing table, (150.one../16, following hop interface) requires care of forwarding 65,536 individual addresses in a hundred and fifty.1../sixteen network.
– a hundred and fifty.1../16 community has sixty five,536 IP addresses. In a routing desk, (one hundred fifty.1../16, next hop interface) normally takes care of forwarding sixty five,536 individual address in 150.1../sixteen community.
– 222.111.forty four./24 has 256 IP addresses. In a routing table, (222.111.44./24, next hop interface) forwards 256 IP addresses in 222.111.forty four. community to the following hop interface.
This autumn. How current mask in decimal?
Reply. Existing mask the identical way as IP deal with. For illustration.
/eight is offered as 255….
/sixteen is introduced as 255.255…
/24 is introduced as 255.255.255.
Q5. Why mask duration is multiple of eight but?
Answer: There are two kind of IP addressing schemes: classful and classless. What we have talked so significantly is classful. Classless IP handle can use mask of any length. See subsequent tutorials for information.
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